1900-1949 Middle East, North Africa

1 January 2001

100s. Israel / Palestine
Instruments were essentially banished from the synagogue after the destruction of the Second Temple, a ban which served as both a sign of national mourning and a bid to dissuade Jews from listening to secular music.The ban largely remained in place for another 1,500 years or so, when secular music made a comeback via the renaissance, and European synagogues began installing organs to accompany the new tunes which chazzanim were using for their old songs.

1930s. Algeria. Cheikha Remitti
The Algerian raï-singer Cheikha Remitti recorded her first records in 1936 and had to suffer criticism from the more orthodox of Muslims as well as the colonial French rulers and later from the Marxist government of post-independence Algeria.

1934. Turkey. Ottoman classical music
Ottoman classical music is a kind of music that developed in parallel with the Ottoman Empire. As the empire grew, elements of conquered peoples were incorporated into the increasingly diverse field of Ottoman music. The Ottoman Empire was a multi-ethnic state, and cultural influences, including music, were shared by many ethnic groups. In 1934, the government of Kemal Ataturk banned Ottoman classical music. The ban was lifted the following year.
Turkish classical music refers quite specifically to the music cultivated by the Ottoman Empire. That empire included substantial territory which had been under Byzantine or Arabic control and traditional music in Turkey was conditioned by that history.


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